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Time-table of the 15th century

[Time-Table of 15th Century]
[Gutenberg and Mainz]
































 
1400 Geoffrey Chaucer (Author of the Canterbury Tales) dies

1402 Jan Hus becomes rector of the University of Prague

1408-1416 Les Très Riches Heures by the Limburg brothers for the Duke of Berry

1437 Emperor Sigismund (the last Emperor of Luxembourg) dies

1415 Resumption of the 100-year war between England and France.
French are defeated at the battle of Azincourt
Jan Hus is burned at the council of Constance

1418 First dated wood cutting in Europe (The Madonna of Brussels)
End of the great papal schism 

1419-1436 Hussite wars
1417-1435 The Italian humanist Leonardi Bruni translates the politics of Aristotle into Italian
1427-52 The Azores become Portuguese property

1431 Inquisition trial and execution of Joan of Arc, the maid of Orleans, in Rouen

1431-65 François Villon (French author of ballads)

1432 The altar of Gent by Hubert and Jan van Eycks

1434 Cosimo de Medici becomes the ruler of the city of Florence
De concordantia catholica by Nikolaus of Kues
Completion of the cupola of the cathedral of Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi

1436 The 100-year war between England and France ends
First Portuguese settlements on the West African coast

1440 Friedrich III. becomes King of Germany

1441 Beginning of the Portuguese slave trade

1444/45 Raids of the Armagnaks
Fire arms and mercenary troops become more and more common in European battle fields

1444 Cosimo de Medici establishes the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence

1445 Death of the poet Oswald of Wolkenstein 

1444-46 Prokop Waldvogel teaches the art of artistic writing in Avignon

1446 Oldest dated copperplate engraving (Passion of Berlin)

1444-1448 Council of Basel

1447-1455 Pope Nikolaus V., donor of the Biblioteca Vaticana

1450 The former mercenary leader Franzesco Sforza becomes duke of Milano

1450/51 Diplomatic visit of Nikolaus of Kues to Germany

1452 Imperial coronation of Friedrich III. in Rome
Leonardo da Vinci and Savonarola are born

1452 Leon Battista Alberti: On the art of construction

1452-1454/55 Gutenberg prints his 42-line Bible in Mainz with a circulation of approximately 180 copies

1453 Conquest of Constantinople by Mohamed II. (the Great)
Flight of numerous Greek scholars to Italy

1454 Gutenberg prints letters of indulgence in Mainz, the proceeds of which were meant to finance a crusade against the Turks

1455 Start of the War of the Roses between the houses of York and Lancaster in England

1458-1464 Enea Silvio Piccolomini Pope Pius II.

1459 Establishment of the Platonic Academy in Florence under Cosimo de Medici

1459 Establishment of the University of Basel 

around 1460 Johannes Müller Regiomontanus develops the decimal fraction calculation

1462 Mainz loses its status as a free city and becomes an archiepiscopal town

1466 First German bible is printed in Strasbourg by Johannes Mentelin

1467 Arnold Pannartz and Konrad Sweynheym establish in Subiaco the first printing shop in Italy

1468 Johannes Gutenberg dies on February 3 in Mainz

1469 Erasmus of Rotterdam and Macchiavelli are born

1471 Portuguese cross the equator for the first time

1473 Start of the construction of the Sixtine Chapel in Rome.
The Augsburg banking house of Fugger establishes business relations with the Habsburg family

1474 Botticelli: The Spring
Michelangelo is born

1477 Establishment of the University of Mainz by archbishop Diether of Isenburg.
Death of Karl the Brave of Burgundy causes long-lasting struggle surrounding the Burgundy inheritance between France and the house of Habsburg

1478 Thomas Morus is born

1481 Introduction of the inquisition in Spain by Thomas de Torquemada

1483 Birth of Martin Luther
Birth of Raffael

1491  Ignatius of Loyolayis born

1492 Columbus reaches America.
First globe constructed by Martin Behaim in Nuremberg.
Conquest of Granada ends the Spanish Reconquista; Jews are driven out of Spain
Leonardo da Vinci draws a flight machine

1493 World chronicle by Hartmann Schedel is published by Anton Koberger in Nuremberg
Friedrich III. dies; Maximilian I. of Habsburg ("The last knight"), German king since 1486, becomes his successor
Division of the new world between Spain and Portugal by a judgement call of Pope Alexander VI

1494 Fall of the Medici in Florence.
Ship of Fools by Sebastian Brant.
First occurrence of Syphilis in Europe

1495 Imperial parliament of Worms, introduction of a general tax ("Gemeiner Pfennig")

1497 Leonardo da Vinci: The last supper

1497/98 Giovanni Caboto reaches North America under British orders

1498 Vasco da Gama sails around the Cape of Good Hope and reaches India by sea
Wood carvings cycle Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer
Execution of Savonarola

1499 Swiss confederates separate from the German Empire
The Fuggers control the European copper market, their wealth has multiplied ten score in 20 years.

1500 Birth of Karl the Fifth
The Portuguese sailor Pedro Caba reaches Brazil.